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Description of Sokoto State
A state in the northwest of Nigeria called Sokoto. It shares boundaries with Kebbi state to the west and south and Zamfara state to the south and east, and it borders the Republic of Niger to the north. South of the state's capital of Sokoto is a region of short-grass savanna, while the northern part is covered in thorn scrub. There is little precipitation between the middle of May and the middle of September, and the region is blasted by the harmattan (dry, dust-laden wind) from the Sahara from the months of November through March. The Sokoto River (Kebbi) and its tributaries carry the water away, with the Sokoto itself being a key Niger River tributary.
The Sokoto and Kebbi states were formerly dominated by the Hausa states of Gobir (north), Zamfara (east), Kebbi (west), and Yauri (south) prior to 1804 and the jihad (holy war) fought by the Fulani people in the region (south). Following the Fulani triumph against the Hausa of Gobir in 1808, jihad commander Shehu (Sheikh) Usman dan Fodio divided his huge dominion in two. Muhammad Bello, his son, became the emir of Sokoto and overlord of the eastern emirates in 1809. Muhammad became the first sultan of Sokoto and the spiritual and political leader of the Fulani empire after his father Usman died in 1817. He was known as sarkin musulmi (which literally translates to "commander of the faithful").
When the Hausa people tried to overthrow Muhammad's dominion during his rule (1817-37), Sokoto put up a strong defense. In 1853, Sokoto and Britain formalized their commercial relationship by signing a treaty. After a treaty in 1885, the British were granted expanded trading privileges, but attempts to expand British colonial holdings were met with opposition. In 1903, the British defeated Sokoto's soldiers, and much of the emirate was subsequently included into the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria.
A hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh) prevails in Sokoto. There are sandy savannahs and lone hills surrounding this area, which is part of the dry Sahel.
Sokoto is one of Nigeria's hottest cities, with an annual average temperature of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), however the maximum daytime temperatures are often under 40 °C (104.0 °F) most of the year, and the dryness makes the heat bearable. Daytime highs typically reach 40 °C throughout the months of February, March, and April. The warmest day ever measured was 45 degrees Celsius. Between the months of June through October, precipitation occurs on a nearly daily basis, making this period the rainy season. Contrary to the frequent, heavy downpours common in many tropical places, these showers tend to be short and mild. During the "cold season," which lasts from late October to February, the harmattan wind from the Sahara dominates the environment. Because the dust obscures the sun, temperatures drop dramatically.
The floodplains of the Sokoto-Rima river system are the region's lifeline for agriculture because of the fertile alluvial soil they contain. Other crops grown in Sokoto include millet, guinea corn, beans, maize, rice, sesame, other grains, and vegetables such onions, tomatoes, peppers, garden eggs, lettuce, and cabbage. Onions, not millet, are Nigeria's most important crop, and Sokoto is located in the savannah biome. Wet season, on the other hand, often starts in May and continues through September or October in most of the state. Between November and February, residents of the state are subjected to the harmattan, a dry, cold, and fairly dusty wind. In March and April, the state's heat index typically reaches its maximum. Except for the height of the harmattan season, the weather in the state consists of chilly mornings and scorching afternoons year-round.
The Fulani and Hausa peoples make up the majority of Sokoto state's anticipated population of 3.7 million, according to a 2006 census. There are over 2.5 million people living in Sokoto town, the capital of Sokoto state. In the border regions of the local governments, you can find populations of Fulani, Hausa, Zabarmawa, and Tuareg. The language of communication between all these communities is Hausa. They, the Fulani, are the only people who speak Fulfulde.
The state's Hausa populace includes inhabitants of the Gobirawa, Zamfarawa, Kabawa, Adarawa, and Arawa subgroups. Fulani people, on the other hand, can be broken down into two distinct subgroups: the urban Fulani (Hausa: Fulanin Gida; Fula: Fule Wuro) and the nomadic Fulani. The former group consists of the Torankawa, Sullubawa, Zoramawa, and the clan of Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo (the Torankawa). Since 1804, the Torankawa have constituted the ruling aristocracy.
The state shares a same culture. Islam is the religion of choice for the vast majority of the state's population. Their fashion has Islamic roots as well. The state annually celebrates two important festivals, known as Eid-el-Fitri and Eid-el-Kabir. The former celebrates the conclusion of Ramadan, while the latter commemorates an event in the life of the Prophet Ibrahim with the ritual slaughter of rams (Abraham).
The Hausa like traditional wrestling (Kokawa) and boxing (Dambe), whilst the Fulani and Sullubawa prefer Sharo and Dor respectively. The grand or small durbar is an event where prominent guests to the state are greeted with a parade of adorned equestrian vehicles ridden by men dressed in traditional military and cultural garb.
To the tune of eighty percent (80%), Sokoto's population engages in agriculture of some kind. Millet, guinea corn, maize, rice, potatoes, cassava, groundnuts, and beans are only some of the staple foods that they grow, while wheat, cotton, and vegetables are grown for profit. Blacksmithing, weaving, dying, carving, and leather works all play significant roles in the economic life of the people of Sokoto, giving rise to the prominence of distinct neighborhoods like Makera, Marina, Takalmawa, and Majema. Additionally, Sokoto is a major fish-producing region in Nigeria. As a result, a lot of individuals living in the river valleys also like going fishing.
Sokoto is as endowed as any other city in terms of its natural and mineral wealth. There is potential for the development of agro-allied industries in the region, which would make use of the region's plentiful supplies of cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, gum, maize, rice, wheat, sugar cane, cassava, gum Arabic, and tobacco. Irrigation water from the Goronyo Dam, Lugu, Kalmalo, Wammakko, and Kwakwazo lakes, among others, allows for large-scale agricultural to be done throughout the state.
Kaolin, gypsum, limestone, laterite, red mills, yellow and green phosphate, shadow clay, sand, etc. are all commercially available minerals. The state might attract mineral-based enterprises that require these resources.
Wild and domestic animals alike benefit from the open grassland's reduced tse-tse fly population. In a country with more than eight million animals, Sokoto is second in livestock output.
Investing in agro-allied sectors including wheat mills, tomato processing, sugar refining, textiles, glue, tanning, fish canning, etc. is a good idea because of the availability of these economic potentials.
Sokoto State is in the dry Sahel, encompassed by sandy savannah and remoted hills. With a yearly average temperature of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), Sokoto state is on the whole, a very hot area. However, maximum daytime temperatures are for most of the year generally under 40 °C (104.0 °F) and the dryness makes the heat bearable.In Sokoto state the friendly months are February to April while daytime temperatures can go beyond 45 °C (113.0 °F). In Sokoto state the rainy season is from June to October during which showers are a daily occurrence.In Sokoto state the showers seldomly last long and are a far cry from the constant severe rain known in wet tropical regions. In Sokoto state from October to February, during the cold season, the climate is dominated by the Harmattan wind blowing Sahara dust over the land.In Sokoto state the dust dims the sunlight thereby lowering temperatures significantly and also leading to the inconvenience of dust everywhere in houses.The region's lifeline for growing crops is the low –lying land of the Sokoto-Rima river system (see Sokoto River), which are covered with rich alluvial soil. For the rest, the general drainess of the region allows for few crops, millet perhaps being the most abundant, complemented by rice, corn, other cereals and beans.