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Description of Ogun state
Southwestern Nigeria is home to Ogun State. Constituted on February 3, 1976, from the previous Western State. Ogun State is located in southeastern Nigeria and shares boundaries with the neighboring states of Lagos to the south, Oyo and Osun to the north, Ondo to the east, and the Republic of Benin to the west. Abeokuta serves as the state capital and is the most populous city in Ogun State. Other notable cities in the state include Ijebu Ode, the seat of the Ijebu Kingdom, and Sagamu, the largest kola nut producing city in Nigeria. The state of Ogun is mostly covered with rain forest, with a small area of woody savanna in the state's northwest. As of 2006, Ogun State had 3,751,140 citizens, making it the 16th most populous state in Nigeria. With a total area of 16,762 square kilometers, Ogun State ranks as Nigeria's 24th largest state. Most of the landmass is made up of tropical rain forest, with some savanna and forested areas located in the northwest.
A major manufacturing area in Nigeria, the state is known as the "Gateway to Nigeria" due to its abundance of industrial estates. Dangote Cement in Ibese, Nestle Lafarge Cement in Ewekoro, Memmcol in Orimerunmu, Coleman Cables in Sagamu and Arepo, and Procter & Gamble in Agbara are only some of the major factories in the state of Ogun. The Yoruba people constitute a sizable ethnic majority in Ogun State, and their language is the de facto official tongue of the state. While traditional religion is still practiced by some, Islam and Christianity are the state's two most prominent faiths. Almost all Ofada rice in the world is grown in the state of Ogun. Many famous people from Nigeria and across Africa hail from the state of Ogun.
About 1830, Sodeke (Shodeke), a hunter and leader of the Egba refugees who left the disintegrating Oyo empire, established a principality at Abeokuta in what is now the north-central region of the state. The Egba and Egbado branches of the Yoruba people make up the bulk of the state's population.
Abeokuta is a city and the capital of the state of Ogun in southwestern Nigeria. Located on the eastern side of the Ogun River, it is dominated by a cluster of rocky outcroppings that provide a visual break from the surrounding forested savanna. Located 48 miles (78 km) south of Lagos, it is on the main railway (1899) and the older trunk road between Lagos and Ibadan. It also connects to Ilaro, Shagamu, Iseyin, and Kétou through road (Benin).
About 1830, Abeokuta ("Refuge Among Rocks") was established by Sodeke (Shodeke), a hunter and leader of the Egba refugees who had escaped the crumbling Oyo dynasty. In addition to the settlers from the United States (in the 1840s), the town also welcomed Creoles from Sierra Leone, some of whom went on to become influential church leaders and business moguls in the area. Conflicts with Dahomey erupted as a result of Abeokuta's rise to prominence as the Egba capital and a hub for the oil-palm trade between Lagos and Ibadan (now Benin). With the help of the missionaries and the weapons provided by the British, the Egba were able to defeat King Gezo's Dahomeyan army in 1851 at the Battle of Abeokuta (unique in the history of western Africa for its common practice of using women warriors). In 1864, the inhabitants of Dahomey successfully repelled another onslaught.
Rice, corn (maize), cassava (manioc), yams, plantains, and bananas are grown in Ogun, making agriculture the mainstay of the economy. The country relies mostly on exports of commodities including cocoa, kola nuts, rubber, palm oil and palm kernels, tobacco, cotton, and timber. Construction supplies for much of southern Nigeria come from the Aro granite quarries located in Abeokuta, the state capital. Limestone, chalk, phosphates, and clay are among the mineral resources. Cement, tinned goods, foam rubber, paint, tires, carpets, metal goods, and plastics are all products of industry. Abeokuta is the final stop for roads and railroads going from Lagos and other parts of the country, making it a significant market center. Attractions in Abeokuta include the Ake, the palace of the alake (the traditional ruler of Egbaland), built in 1854 and known for its collection of antiquities and relics, and the Centenary Hall, which is said to have been a sanctuary for early Egba settlers. Abeokuta, the state capital, is home to a university dedicated to agricultural studies, and there are also colleges in the city that train teachers there. Total Size: 6,472 Sq. Mi (16,762 square km)
Abeokuta is now an important hub for the export of cocoa, palm produce, fruits, and kola nuts, as well as a distribution center for a wide variety of other agricultural goods (including rice, yams, cassava, corn [maize], palm oil and kernels, cotton, fruits, vegetables, shea butter, and rubber). Missionaries in the 1850s brought rice and cotton to the region, and today rice cultivation and cotton weaving and dying are among the town's most prominent cultural practices. Abeokuta is home to the federal Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority, which runs initiatives in Lagos, Ogun, Osun, and Oyo states to better utilize their land and water resources for rural growth. Included are endeavors in irrigation, food processing, and electricity. Local industry is small, but it has expanded to include canneries for preserving fruit, a plastics factory, and sawmills. The nearby Ewekoro Modern Cement Plant and the Aro Granite Quarries supply much of southern Nigeria with construction materials.
Ogun State is rich in a number of different minerals, including (but not limited to) clay, limestone, phosphate, bitumen, kaolin, gemstones, and feldspar.